International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education
IJTLHE
International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education
IJTLHE
International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education
IJTLHE
International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education
IJTLHE
2008: Volume 20 Number 2
Reviewers for Issue 20(2)
Margo Bowman Wayne State University
James Brittain Northeastern State University
Celina Byers Bloomsburg University
Mehtap Cakan Abant Izzet Baysal University
Pete Cannell The Open University in Scotland
Mieke Clement Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
Brigitte Debord Colorado Academy
Ugur Demiray Anadolu University
Tracey Devonport University of Wolverhampton
Peter Doolittle Virginia Tech
Anna-May Edwards-Henry The University of the West Indies
Nancy Erbe California State University Dominguez Hills
Dwedor Ford Winston Salem State University
Mike Garant University of Helsinki
Rebecca Mattern Ghabour Wilmington University
Francine Glazer New York Institute of Technology
Carol Greene East Carolina University
Lynne Hammann Mansfield University
Tony Harland University of Otago
Iain Hay Flinders University, South Australia
Orit Hazzan Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Christine Hockings University of Wolverhampton
Dennis Humphrey Premier Academic Solutions
Mark Israel Faculty of Law, University of Western Australia
Marianne Justus University of Phoenix
Cristy Kessler University of Hawaii- Manoa
Lenore Kinne Northern Kentucky University
Anastasia Kitsantas George Mason University
Ernest Koh Monash University
Olabisi Kuboni University of the West Indies Open Campus
Rita Kumar University of Cincinnati
James Lane Columbia College
Miriam Larson Virginia Tech
Randy Lee Columbia College
Yiping Lou Louisiana State University
Ken Martin University of Cincinnati
Yadollah Mehralizadeh University of Shahid Chamran
David Richard Moore Ohio University
Lin Muilenburg St. Mary's College of Maryland
Linda Naimi Purdue University
Sue Neeley University of Houston-Clear Lake
Muiris O Laoire Institute of Technology
Sandra Pace Northcentral University
Dev Poling Ohio University Zanesville
Warren Rosenberg Iona College
Melodie Rosenfeld Achva Academic College of Education
Pedro Sanchez-Escobedo Universidad Aut?noma de Yucat
Stephanie Scheer University of Virginia
Sarah Semon University of South Florida
Alain Senteni Virtual Centre for Innovative Learning Technologies, University of Mauritius
Erica Smith Charles Sturt University
Elizabeth Stacey Deakin University
Ronald Styron The University of Southern Mississippi
Debra Swoboda York College/City University of New York
Karen Thoms St. Cloud State University
Sharon Valente University of Hawaii West Oahu
Brian Vander Schee Aurora University
C. Edward Watson, Ph.D. Association of American Colleges and Universities
Erin Webster-Garrett Radford University
Darcelle White Eastern Michigan University
Jesse Wilkins Virginia Tech
Frank Wray University of Cincinnati
Carl Young North Carolina State University

2008 - Research Article
Lee, K.
Views: 1180       [257]
Abstract: This case study outlines a program developed by a group of 6 teachers’ college lecturers who volunteered to provide a technology program to year 7 & 8 children (11- and 12-year-olds) for a year. This involved teaching technology once a week. As technology education was a new curriculum area when first introduced to the college, few lecturers had classroom experience of teaching this new subject. Although the lecturers had sound personal constructs of technology education and lectured in the area of technology education, teaching this age group for this extended period was a new experience for all. The lecturers’ honest evaluations document the difficulties and emotional times they encountered as they tried to implement the technology curriculum.

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Abstract: How widespread is the use of personal self-disclosure by faculty in the college classroom? Employing a national survey of teaching faculty within liberal arts schools and smaller colleges and universities, the incidence of self-reported faculty self-disclosure was investigated. Teachers (n = 430) provided responses reflecting the content and context of self-disclosure in instructional and mentoring roles. Response data revealed few differences in self-reported self-disclosure across several key background characteristics such as teaching discipline, teaching experience, class size, or class level. ANOVAs revealed significant differences on two specific variables: Self-disclosure was less frequently reported by those with the lowest tenure status and more frequently reported to occur during longer class sessions. Implications of these findings for teaching practice and future research are also discussed.

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2008 - Research Article
Wilkinson, J.
Views: 1922       [278]
Abstract: Cheating, plagiarism, and other forms of academic misconduct are a significant issue in higher education. In this study, the attitudes of academic staff and students in a 3 year undergraduate nursing program to various forms of academic misconduct were assessed and compared. Forty- nine percent of staff and 39% of students thought that cheating on assessment tasks was common with “copying a few paragraphs and not citing the source” the most common form. Differences existed in beliefs about why cheating occurred with staff endorsing the view that students lacked an understanding of the rules. Students, on the other hand, felt that wanting a better grade and having too many assessment items were strong motivators for cheating. Students also tended to favor “lighter sentences” (e.g., warnings, resubmission) as penalties for plagiarism. This study has shown that while staff and students have similar overall perceptions about cheating and plagiarism there are areas where the differences in perception may be contributing to mixed messages about the seriousness of various cheating behaviors.

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2008 - Research Article
Perry, B., Dalton, J., Edwards, M.
Views: 1034       [302]
Abstract: Creating a sense of community in the online classroom is a challenge for educators who teach via the Internet. There is a growing body of literature supporting the importance of the community construct in online courses (Liu, Magjuka, Curtis, & Lee, 2007). Thus, educators are challenged to develop and implement innovative teaching technologies that help create virtual communities. The purpose of this exploratory research project was to document and analyze the students’ perceptions of an original interactive teaching technology called photovoice (PV) (Wang, & Burris, 1997). PV was trialed as a teaching strategy in a graduate course on change management. Following the completion of the course, qualitative data was collected from students regarding their experiences with PV. Three key themes emerged from the data: (a) support for course engagement, (b) enhancement of the learning environment, and (c) development of social connectedness. These findings are discussed within the context of an online learning community as described by Rovai (2002a) and the Community of Inquiry Model proposed by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2000). Finally, research questions that arise from this study are outlined.

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2008 - Research Article
Heaton Shrestha, C., May, S., Edirisingha, P., Linsey, T., Burke, L.
Views: 1429       [317]
Abstract: For many years, face-to-face peer mentoring has been a feature of learning support provided to first-year undergraduate students at one university in the UK. Building on the success of these initiatives, a scheme has been developed at this institution in which first-year undergraduates are mentored by second- and third-year students through a variety of media, both face-to-face and electronic. A research study was undertaken to evaluate the implementation of scheme, part of which involved undertaking a series of interviews with the e-mentors who participated over the course of two years. In presenting the findings, this paper discusses the commonalities that emerged and between face-to-face and e-mentoring; reflects on ways in which use of the electronic medium adds to the generic benefits of mentoring; shows that e-mentoring impacts differently on mentors and mentees; and highlights some of the particular challenges e-mentoring presents to mentors. The implications for the selection and training of mentors are discussed in the final section of the paper.

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2008 - Research Article
Shawer, S., Gilmore, D., Banks-Joseph, S.
Views: 1981       [318]
Abstract: This qualitative study examines the learner-directed motives that cause English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers to approach curriculum differently, as curriculum-transmitters, curriculum-developers, or curriculum-makers. This study’s conceptual framework was grounded in teacher curriculum development, curriculum implementation, curriculum-making, student cognitive and affective change, and social constructivism. The study made use of the qualitative paradigm at the levels of ontology (multiple curriculum realities), epistemology (interaction with rather than detachment from respondents), and methodology (using idiographic methodology and instruments). The research design involved qualitative case studies (Yin, 1994) as the research strategy and general interviews, pre- and post-lesson interviews, group interviews, and participant observation. Grounded theory was the data analysis approach. Based on work with college students from various countries, the study concluded that learner-directed motives, particularly student schematic, affective, pragmatic, and subject-content needs had significantly driven EFL teachers to implement various curricula. Learner content styles were also found to have an impact on the ways teachers approach curriculum. The results indicated positive relationships between learner-directed motives and the teacher curriculum-developer and curriculum-maker’s approaches. In contrast, negative relationships between learner-directed motives and the teacher curriculum-transmitter’s approach were established. The study provides recommendations for curriculum development, teacher education and future research.

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Abstract: Although affect is widely recognized as a powerful force in determining students’ academic success, researchers and practitioners have paid little attention to emotional barriers that often impede college success or how instructors may respond constructively when such barriers arise. The purpose of this paper is to initiate discussion of this important problem by offering a model of how an initially resistant, fearful, and/or anxious student can use emotionally unpleasant experiences to transform himself or herself into a more autonomous and successful learner. We offer prima facie support for this model by presenting the results of two cases of first year students. Although this model may not apply to all anxious first year students, it nevertheless has value (a) as a resource for instructors working with students who fit this pattern and (b) as an example of how the role of emotions in learning can profitably be studied.

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2008 - Research Article
Byrne, M., Flood, B., Willis, P.
Views: 1268       [325]
Abstract: This paper provides a comparative analysis of the learning approaches of students taking their first course in accounting at a United States or an Irish university. The data for this study was gathered from 204 students in the U.S. and 309 in Ireland, using the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST, 1997) which measures learning approaches on three dimensions: deep, strategic, and surface. The analysis reveals that while both samples favor a strategic approach over the other approaches, the U.S. students have a significantly higher score on the deep and strategic scales compared to the Irish students. Differences between the samples at the subscale level - such as students’ intrinsic interest, time management, and fear of failure - are also reported. Finally, the study contextualizes the findings by analyzing variations in the learning environment of the two universities.

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2008 - Research Article
Light, G., Calkins, S., Luna, M., Drane, D.
Views: 1302       [328]
Abstract: This paper reports findings from an empirical four-year study designed to investigate the relationship between key constructs of an extended model of teaching and learning in higher education. Using a mixed-methods approach, we sought to assess the impact of a year-long faculty development program (FDP) designed for pre-tenure faculty on participant approaches to teaching. From our analysis of participant critical reports of teaching, post-program interviews, and the Approaches to Teaching Inventory (ATI), we found evidence of positive change in the approaches to teaching of junior faculty participants in the FDP. All three methods elicited evidence indicating that participating faculty moved towards more conceptual change/student focused approaches to teaching, and that a significant part of that change could be attributed to their participation in the program.

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2008 - Research Article
Fives, H., Looney, L.
Views: 1151       [330]
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to provide an exploratory investigation of college-level instructors’ sense of teaching and collective efficacy. We investigated the relations of teacher- and collective-efficacy with a series of variables: experience, professional level, age, gender, academic domain (for teacher-efficacy only), and academic department (for collective-efficacy only) as well as the relationship between collective- and teacher-efficacy. Data from 117 graduate students, lecturers, and faculty were analyzed. Differences in teacher-efficacy were found with respect to gender and academic domain. Differences in collective-efficacy were not found across departments, experience levels, or professional levels. Teacher-efficacy was significantly correlated with collective-efficacy.

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2008 - Research Article
Tait, K.
Views: 1217       [332]
Abstract: Teaching and learning, as two of the most fundamental components of the educational process, have been of interest to a variety of individuals concerned with tertiary education for a long time (e.g., Biggs & Moore, 1993; Marton, 1997; Ramsden, 2003). Few individuals would deny that learning is the primary purpose of higher education and that teaching is the foremost means by which that goal is accomplished. Consequently, tertiary educators constantly seek opportunities to provide best practice in their university classrooms. As a profession, teaching at the tertiary level obviously draws upon a formal knowledge base. An important step in the translation of the formal knowledge base to enlightened practice is to draw upon tertiary students' experiential and informal knowledge. This paper discusses how a work based learning experience was utilized to enhance a post graduate course on collaborative consultation and team building methods.

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Abstract: The concept of critical thinking was featured in taxonomies a few decades ago. Critical thinking is a complex process that requires higher levels of cognitive skills in the processing of information. The teachers’ perceptions of critical thinking among students influence their behaviors in the classroom. It has been found that teachers perceive they are teaching critical thinking to their students and believe that critical thinking will provide the intellectual stimuli that will facilitate critical thinking. The evidence of critical thinking among students was perceived to be their ability to explain to ideas and concepts in their own words. However, the ability to think logically and solve problems using new approaches paraphrase is not an indication of the students’ higher-level cognitive skills but the process the student undertakes to gain understanding of the material presented. Teachers did not seem to understand the requirements needed to cultivate critical thinking among students. Although teachers perceive that they are encouraging critical thinking in the classroom, they are merely focusing on the comprehension of the subject matter.

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Abstract: This article describes a pilot project carried out at City University London, Department of Language and Communication Science, where adult service users with learning disabilities trained first-year speech and language therapy students. The training involved presentations by the service users on their involvement in interviewing support staff, work experience, and daily routines. All service users employed their preferred communication mode when presenting. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the students’ perceptions of the benefits of the training for them as future practitioners as well as developing their own disability awareness. Twenty-four students took part in the training, and 13 students completed an evaluation questionnaire. The feedback from students was generally positive with a range of comments around how they valued the experience in terms of developing knowledge and insight as well as challenging their own perceptions of disability. In addition, service users were asked to evaluate their own achievements in relation to the experience of teaching students.

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Abstract: This paper reviews the use of extended case studies as a teaching method to deeply engage students in the learning and understanding of policy theory. Discussion commences with a review of the literature on the use of case method as an approach to teaching and learning and then critiques the results of student surveys that questioned their opinions on the effectiveness of the case teaching method as experienced in their policy studies course. The analysis of the findings suggest that where a key course goal is to teach policy theory and enable students to use it as a tool to analyze practice, then at the undergraduate level, long structured case studies extended over a number of weeks are most effective. Engaging students in extended case studies helps them develop applied policy skills, an understanding of policy theory and greater capacity to apply theoretical concepts to assist in the analysis of real, everyday policy problems. This paper argues that extended case studies that involve students in the research and analysis of contemporary policy issues is an effective way of engaging students in course material and encourages deep learning.

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2008 - Research Article
Murphy, D., MacLaren, I., Flynn, S.
Views: 2831       [351]
Abstract: This study examines various aspects of an effective teaching evaluation system. In particular, reference is made to the potential of Fink’s (2008) four main dimensions of teaching as a summative evaluation model for effective teaching and learning. It is argued that these dimensions can be readily accommodated in a Teaching Portfolio process. The Teaching Portfolio initiative that is in use for the Postgraduate Certificate Programme in Teaching and Learning in Higher Education at the National University of Ireland Galway is a case in point. The challenges encountered when attempting to develop mechanisms for the summative evaluation of quality teaching are explored, as well as some of the possibilities for their resolution.

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2008 - Research Article
Goi, C., Ng, P.
Views: 9401       [357]
Abstract: The main objective of this study was to identify successful factors in implementing an e-learning program. Existing literature has identified several successful factors in implementing an e-learning program. These factors include program content, web page accessibility, learners’ participation and involvement, web site security and support, institution commitment, interactive learning environment, instructor competency, and presentation and design. All these factors were tested together with other related criteria which are important for e-learning program implementation. The samples were collected based on quantitative methods, specifically, self-administrated questionnaires. All the criteria that were tested to see if they were important in an e-learning program implementation.

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Abstract: A typical college classroom is often pictured with the professor talking for several hours while students frantically try to write down everything that is said. This type of classroom has traditionally produced surface learning and has done little to promote learning that lasts. Do university classrooms have to be professor driven? Can university classrooms become engaging and facilitate student learning? What does a learner-centered classroom look like at the university level? The authors of this paper will explore effective strategies for making this shift to learner-centered university classrooms. Strategies include the use of an essential question for a course, a taxonomy of comprehension for class discussion, and writing activities. Specific university classroom examples are included.

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2008 - Instruction Article
Panday, P.
Views: 1381       [271]
Abstract: The article intends to simplify the different aspects of podcasting. The article covers types of podcasts; the pedagogical benefits of podcasting; the connection between theory and podcasting; answers to questions, queries, and apprehensions. Before trying out a new tool, it is important to understand why we do things the way we do. A crucial part of using any tool or technology is to understand, test, and determine the pedagogical appropriateness of it for specific context. Through the article, the author has tried to suggest some of the uses of podcasting along with the pedagogical appropriateness in different scenarios. At the end, the author has tried to (through pictorial representation) describe the podcasting community and the tasks performed by the community members. Also, through a pictorial representation, the author has provided a gist of the podcasting creation process as a producer and as a consumer.

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Abstract: Through globalization, the world is becoming smaller, placing responsibility on the educational system to prepare tolerant, culturally empathetic learners. In response to this rising demand, students from a U.S. Midwestern university and another from St. Petersburg, Russia, met on a video bridge and learned intercultural communications by interculturally communicating. This paper examines how video-conferencing allowed American and Russian students on opposite ends of the earth to meet through technology to share each others’ beliefs, values, and world views, and to sample the elaborate, multidimensional, and pervasive cultures of their international counterparts.

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2008 - Instruction Article
Nolan, R., Rocco, T.
Views: 2090       [326]
Abstract: Writing requires reflective thinking that takes time. Yet, our technological society has speeded up the pace of our everyday lived experience. This article describes a systematic method developed by two tenured faculty at geographically distant universities to demystify the process of professional academic writing. Using action research as method, the authors have devised steps to help graduate students begin to slow their hectic pace of life and to critically reflect on the writing process itself as a necessary step in the art of writing for publication. Their method of teaching professional writing for publication has resulted in students’ work being successfully published.

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2008 - Instruction Article
Wright, A., Calabrese, N., Henry, J.
Views: 1162       [331]
Abstract: Cura personalis (care of the individual) represents one of the core ideals of all Jesuit colleges and universities. At one urban Jesuit college, faculty members of The School of Education and Human Services and The College of Arts and Sciences initiated a service-learning project in a freshman level pedagogical core course. One goal of the Children’s Literature course was to promote deeper understanding, empathy, and action in undergraduate students towards working with children in urban schools. In order to promote this goal, a 10-hour service-learning requirement was added to the course. For 10 hours, students in the course, teacher candidates and others, worked in a multicultural urban classroom, sharing multicultural literature and classroom activities. Overall, the students, who mostly came from suburban environments, felt the experience was rewarding. Many students came to realize that their preconceptions about urban schools were inaccurate. The experience made several of the prospective teachers more willing to teach in urban schools. Also, students became aware of the many basic needs of the urban schools and how these needs affected student learning. Many students came to believe that student diversity in the elementary classroom had a positive influence on the classroom environment.

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Abstract: Many instructors teach courses that prepare students to do research individually or in teams. These instructors also supervise their students’ research projects. Continuous and systematic use of action research principles can help instructors prepare for problems that may develop when students encounter unfamiliar issues at research sites due to their lack of knowledge or to their own assumptions about the sites. Students may also encounter unanticipated difficulties in team collaborations. Action research principles include planning how and what to teach, implementing activities, observing them, reflecting on their efficacy, and then making changes in instructional practices.

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Abstract: While there are recognized and demonstrated benefits of service learning for student outcomes, challenges professors may face using such approach for competency-based teaching have seldom been discussed. This paper describes the integration of service-learning pedagogy in teaching a project-based course on program planning to new Masters of Public Health (MPH) students. In addition to the benefits of learning outcomes, challenges from the students’ perspective are described. More importantly, challenges that many professors may face when incorporating service learning into instruction are discussed. These include heavy time commitment, new MPH students with diverse backgrounds, and student anxiety. Strategies used to address these challenges are also shared, such as plan in advance, acknowledge challenges and provide resources, develop guided instructions, and tailor to students’ stages of learning. Students’ feedback and responses to the overall course and these strategies are presented. This paper aims to encourage more dialogue on using service-learning pedagogy in higher education and help instructors be prepared to deal with some of the more complex issues when infusing such pedagogy among new graduate students.

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2008 - Instruction Article
Russell-Bowie, D.
Views: 4302       [345]
Abstract: Community engagement has been used for many years to enhance and strengthen teacher education courses, preparing student teachers with real life learning experiences as they work with community groups in mutually beneficial projects. This research examines a community engagement project that involved 13 undergraduate creative arts students who were planning to enroll in a post-graduate teacher education degree course when they had completed their initial degree. The students were placed in a primary school to work on a variety of creative arts-based projects with a range of teachers and classes with the aim of learning skills, knowledge, and strategies about teaching in relation to the creative arts. Outcomes from the project included an increasing confidence and competence in relation to teaching skills, knowledge, and strategies by the students as they were involved in the action – reflection cycle of community engagement. The school community also benefited from the project as children were developing creative arts skills and knowledge as they worked with the university students, and the teachers gained new ideas in relation to implementing the creative arts in their classrooms.

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