International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education
IJTLHE
International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education
IJTLHE
International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education
IJTLHE
International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education
IJTLHE
2011: Volume 23 Number 3
Reviewers for Issue 23(3)
Craig Brians Virginia Tech
Ali A. Abdi University of British Columbia
Craig Abrahamson James Madison University
Lauren Bryant North Carolina State University
C. Noel Byrd Eastern Kentucky University
Patricia Cranton University of New Brunswick
Denise DeGarmo Southern Illinois University
Peter Doolittle Virginia Tech
Terrence Doyle Ferris State University
Neil Duncan University of Wolverhampton
Gulsun EBY Anadolu University, College of Open Education
Anna-May Edwards-Henry The University of the West Indies
Bethany Flora East Tennessee State University
Martha Gabriel University of Prince Edward Island
Lynne Hammann Mansfield University
Richard Kenny Athabasca University
Christopher Klopper Griffith University
Tanya Kunberger Florida Gulf Coast University
Paul Lam The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Laura Levi Altstaedter East Carolina University
Catherine Manathunga Victoria University Wellington
Cortney Martin Virginia Tech
Lisa Ncube Purdue University
Kim Niewolny Virginia Tech
Kay Sambell Northumbria University
Connie M. Tang Stockton University
Kenneth Tyler University of Kentucky
Brian Vander Schee Aurora University
Theresa Yeo The Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing

2011 - Research Article
Malm, J., Bryngfors, L., Mörner, L.
Views: 1041       [1025]
Abstract: Supplemental Instruction (SI) is today a well-known academic assistance program that provides help for students in “difficult” courses. SI has repeatedly been shown to decrease the percentage of failures in the course as well as increasing course grades for students who attended SI sessions. Although SI is open for all students, its main objective is to come to terms with students’ high failure rates and retention problems. And even if SI has been shown to reduce failure rates and increase reenrollment figures, surprisingly few studies have been devoted to determine how well it benefits students with different prior academic ability. These studies tend to show that “weaker” students benefit from SI. The results for “average” and “strong” students are not as clear. The present study focuses on the benefit of SI for “weak”, “average,” and “strong” first-year engineering students in a calculus course. The results show that all three groups benefit from SI and that the failure rates among students with low prior mathematics achievement who had high SI attendance are almost as low as for students with high prior mathematics achievement who do not attend SI.

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Abstract: Researchers have identified a number of learning experiences including faculty-student interaction which affect students' gains in learning outcomes in higher education. This study specifically focused on the relationship between out-of-class faculty-student contact and student learning gains in a language teacher education program. The study was based on data gathered from 116 senior students at English Language Teacher Education Department of Cukurova University, Turkey. The results suggest that the main contribution of contact with faculty members is attributed to gains in knowledge and subject matter competence. On the other hand, faculty contact is not seen as a source of intellectual growth and practical competence by the participant students. The findings of the study prove to be valuable for showing insights about the relationship between faculty-student interaction and specific learning gains.

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2011 - Research Article
Ramaekers, S., van Keulen, H., Kremer, W., Pilot, A., van Beukelen, P.
Views: 1017       [1030]
Abstract: Case-based learning formats, in which relevant case information is provided just in time, require teachers to combine their scaffolding role with an information-providing one. The objective of this study is to establish how this combination of roles affects teacher behavior and that, in turn, mediates students’ reasoning and problem solving. Data on actual behaviors, intentions, effects and appreciation were collected using observations of case discussions, interviews, and a questionnaire in a mixed method, concurrent nested design. Cross-case analysis of the observed discussions revealed two patterns of combining the provision of information with scaffolding. Although students commonly responded to scaffolding interventions as intended, the results from the observations and the questionnaire showed that a pattern with a high level of concurrent scaffolding and provision of information should be avoided.

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2011 - Research Article
Hakkarainen, P., Vapalahti, K.
Views: 920       [1047]
Abstract: This paper presents the first cycle of a design-based study at Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences, Finland, during which a video-supported forum-theater approach was implemented and evaluated. Students enrolled in the Drama course in the Civic Activities and Youth Work degree program produced and recorded forum-theater performances about elderly people’s use of alcohol, with the recordings used first as learning tools for themselves and later as video cases for social work students enrolled in the Substance Abuse course. The study sought to refine the design of these courses by analyzing the Drama course students’ experiences of the video-supported forum-theater approach from the viewpoint of meaningful learning and then the Substance Abuse students’ experiences of the video cases. The results indicate that, according to the Drama students, videosupported forum-theater facilitates both teaching and meaningful learning, enhancing the acquisition of domain-specific knowledge, methodological skills, and the ability to solve every day social problems. The Substance Abuse students perceived the video cases as useful for learning. According to students, the videos were authentic and represented working life well. The results suggest several practical refinements to both the Drama and the Substance Abuse course designs and to the teaching activities.

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Abstract: A total of 575 students from the Associate Degree Foundation Program and the Associate Degree Program participated in this study. The two purposes of this study were to use the time series between/within experimental design to examine whether participation in co-curricular activities could (1) enhance student learning effectiveness and (2) have positive effects on the academic performance of self-funded sub-degree students in Hong Kong. It was found that participation in cocurricular activities could not enhance student learning effectiveness. Associate degree students were too preoccupied by the need to attain good academic results in the first 2-3 terms of study. Rather, this study suggests that student learning effectiveness is affected by the time factor. High learning effectiveness was observed in the middle of the academic year but relatively low learning effectiveness at the end of the year.

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2011 - Research Article
Budge, K.
Views: 880       [1067]
Abstract: An earlier study conducted into tertiary student perceptions of feedback on their work revealed a mixed response to the idea of electronic feedback. This result was surprising considering the attention given to Generation Y and the preference for digital technology in their lives. This paper reports on the results of a follow-up study exploring a 2010 cohort of Australian tertiary students and their perceptions of electronic formats for providing feedback on their work. Student preferences, experiences, feedback clarity, teacher feedback and feedback from others were all investigated within the overarching context of electronic feedback on students’ work. A survey was used to collect data about this topic via a combination of qualitative open-ended and closed questions. The findings continue to generate surprise as young, tech-savvy students revealed a preference for the personal via face-to-face and hand written feedback, while seeming to just tolerate electronic formats as a back-up form of feedback. In considering these findings, this paper argues that we cannot make assumptions about how students want to use technology in all aspects of their lives, including the learning environments in which they are engaged. In this hyper-technology aware period, there is a human aspect to feedback that is conveyed through non-electronic forms that students value very highly.

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2011 - Research Article
Rittschof, K., Chambers, W.
Views: 668       [1071]
Abstract: We present an example analysis and corresponding information graphics of data from a cognitive ability assessment as a means to illustrate the use of a Rasch measurement approach and advantages inherent in such an approach for a wide variety of teaching and learning investigations. The importance of placing measurements of student performances and measurements of assessment item difficulties on the same scale is demonstrated through the use of the information graphics. The possibilities for teacher-scholars to begin including basic Rasch analysis and graphics within studies of students are highlighted. Improved understanding of the relationships between student performances and the validity of instruments used to assess those performances is emphasized. The importance of key measurement principles, as illustrated with an ability assessment, is discussed in relation to potential application with classroom assessment of learning and survey assessment.

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Abstract: Determining and maintaining interpersonal boundaries with students is an ever-present yet rarelydiscussed element of teaching graduate students. Where to meet students for advising appointments, how much to self-disclose in the classroom, and whether to collaborate with students on community projects – these are typical of the challenges that graduate school faculty encounter regularly as classroom teachers, and program, thesis, and practicum advisors. This article is based on a grounded theory study of relational practice between master’s students and professors; while the study was not designed to explore interpersonal boundaries per se, participants discussed power, position, and boundaries, thus providing significant data to explore this topic. With positive relationship scholarship and relational cultural theory as sensitizing concepts, this study included in-depth interviews of 10 matched pairs of master’s alumni and professors wherein each member of the dyad considered the relationship to be meaningful. Grounded theory dimensional analysis methods were used to analyze the data and identified categories including the following: professors’ awareness of positionality, professors establishing boundaries, students’ awareness of positionality, and students and professors working close to the boundaries. These categories were used to examine extant literature and propose an expanded understanding of interpersonal boundaries between students and teachers.

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Abstract: The need to effectively prepare faculty to teach in a cross-cultural environment has become imperative in the context of globalizing higher education (Deardorff, 2009; Verbik, 2007). Many higher education institutions around the world have internationalized their degrees and programs, and they have established foreign branch campuses to provide their intellectual resources in other countries (Altbach, 2010; Armstrong, 2007). In this paradigm, faculty members are contracted from the home campus or from an outside organization to teach in the foreign branch, but they receive little formal preparation to teach in this type of environment (Lewin, 2008; McBurnie & Ziguras, 2007). Faculty members are unaware of culturally competent pedagogical strategies on how to respond in culturally sensitive ways, and thus they lack the ability to successfully communicate and work with learners from other cultures (Paige & Goode, 2009). This paper focuses on preparing faculty to teach cross-culturally at international branch campuses. Using Darla Deardorff’s process model of intercultural competency, I will develop a framework that focuses on three core elements of Deardorff’s process model—attitudes, knowledge and comprehension, and skills—that will help faculty members to teach internationally. In the paper’s conclusion, I will suggest best practices and discuss the implications of intercultural competency for transnational teaching.

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Abstract: Introducing the general education curriculum in a required first-year seminar can be challenging. However, it provides a great opportunity to influence students’ perceptions. The results of this study indicate that doing so increases student appreciation for general education and increases student confidence in general education course selection. This should enhance the classroom learning environment for all as students approach general education classes with greater interest and understanding.

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Abstract: The number of students studying abroad is continuing to grow, which allows for intercultural learning to take place while forming cross-cultural relationships. This intercultural understanding plays a vital role as businesses begin operating in the global marketplace where cross-cultural relationships and understanding are needed. International students bring differing cultural experiences, expectations, and learning styles to the higher education classroom that allow for new perspectives to be introduced. How can faculty effectively leverage this cultural diversity in the classroom while addressing the academic needs of both the host and international students? Through effective teaching practices in a globalized classroom and an awareness of the cultural diversity present in the classroom, faculty members can provide learning opportunities, both academic and socially, that meets the needs of host and international students while preparing them for effective interactions in a globalized society.

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2011 - Instruction Article
Starcher, K., Proffitt, D.
Views: 1223       [1057]
Abstract: Reasons are examined as to why students are reluctant to complete assigned textbook readings on a timely basis. Prior research suggested that lack of student motivation, lack of student knowledge of effective study habits, competing demands on student time, and lack of congruency between student objectives for the course and professor objectives for students could be the cause. Our empirical research indicated that both the textbook and the professor can impact student willingness to complete assigned readings. Students (n=394) suggested that a good textbook be reasonably priced ($50 or less), concise (short chapters), loaded with great graphics, and easy to understand. Business faculty (n=77) shared ideas on how they encourage students to prepare for class by completing their assigned textbook reading. The authors divided the responses into one of two general categories: (1) requiring additional student preparation prior to class, or (2) incorporating in-class activities designed to measure the degree of student preparation. These responses were then categorized as reflections of professorial assumptions (Theory X or Theory Y) regarding their students. One author shared his success with the use of Thoughtful Intellectually Engaging Responses (TIERs) and Reading Logs. The authors conclude that an effective approach will require professors to develop course pedagogy that will attack multiple reasons for lack of preparation simultaneously so that we can reach all students who would otherwise remain unprepared. Suggestions on how to continue the dialog on this topic as well as suggestions for future research are provided.

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Abstract: This article explores the transition of a foundations of education course from an on-site to an online delivery format. Constructivist and critical pedagogical theoretical work grounds the course content and approach overall, and specific links are made in terms of creating a similar critical environment while using both delivery methods with master’s level students. The author describes particular adjustments to course assignments, as well as how students mobilize critical reflection about the course issues and the course itself in retrospect. This comparative look at course delivery methods has implications for creating engaging, flexible learning environments in all foundations-related course environments to nurture the development of reflective practitioners.

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